The contents of this paper are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Date ideas in Tyler area. Background: Many studies in humans have related birth weight to lipid profiles in adulthood.
Fewer have estimated associations directly attributable to maternal nutrition during pregnancy.
Maternal exposure to the dutch famine before conception and during pregnancy: quality of life and depressive symptoms in adult offspring
Objective: Our objective was to determine whether famine exposure during gestation is associated with a more atherogenic profile in adult offspring. De: In —, we studied 1 singleton men and women born between Date with destiny Hampshire and March in clinics in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Leiden whose mothers were exposed to the famine during pregnancy; 2 singletons born in the same 3 institutions during or ; and 3 unexposed same-sex siblings of the above individuals. A lipid profile was obtained after an overnight fast.
: Female offspring with prenatal famine exposure had a dyslipidemic pattern characterized by elevated total cholesterol 0. This pattern was not seen in men. The increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were independent of body mass index, waist circumference, and midthigh circumference. The increase in triglycerides was independent of midthigh circumference but was attenuated with control for either body mass index or waist circumference.
Romantic dates Lexington KY was no evidence for associations within specific gestational windows.
No association was observed between prenatal famine exposure and HDL cholesterol in either sex. Elevated plasma or serum concentrations of total or LDL cholesterol, an elevated ratio of total cholesterol TC to HDL cholesterol TC:HDL cholesteroland elevated triglyceride concentrations, especially with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations, all increase cardiovascular disease risk 1 — 5. Positive reports on associations Canton woman looking for irish man reduced birth weight and adult lipoprotein profiles 6 — 11 have been interpreted Atlanta support the hypothesis that poor prenatal nutrition increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life 12 ; these associations with reduced birth weight have not been confirmed in all studies 13 — Although animal models have shown that maternal nutrition in gestation affects cholesterol concentrations 16 — 19human data are sparse.
Birth weight is a suboptimal indicator of early prenatal nutrition 20 — 23and more direct measures of maternal and fetal nutrition are therefore needed. The Speed dating asian Dallas Texas TX — famine provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of maternal undernutrition at different stages of gestation on adult health.
The famine was clearly defined in place limited to the western Netherlands and time October —May and occurred in a society with a well-developed administrative structure. It resulted from a transport embargo on food imposed date in Ocala Florida the German occupying forces in early October The women and widespread nature of the famine have been fully documented 24 dutch Despite the war, nutrition in the Netherlands had generally been adequate before October The famine ceased at liberation in Mayafter which time Allied food supplies were rapidly distributed across the country.
The famine affected mortality, especially in the youngest and oldest agefertility, pregnancy weight gain, and infant size at birth 202628 — Three prior studies of the association between maternal wartime nutritional experiences in England, Leningrad, and Amsterdam and offspring lipid profiles have been published 32 — As described in greater detail elsewhere 35we identified a birth cohort of live-born singleton births at 3 institutions in famine-exposed cities the midwifery training schools in Amsterdam and Rotterdam and the university hospital in Leiden.
We selected all births between 1 February and 31 March infants whose mothers dating exposed to the famine during or immediately preceding that pregnancy and a sample of births from and whom we deated as i dating out of my Topeka time men infants whose mothers were not exposed to famine during this pregnancy.
The sample of controls included an equal of births for each month, allocated across the 3 institutions according to their size. Names and addresses at birth for the infants were provided to the Population Register in the municipality of birth with a request for tracing to their current address.
These individuals were sent a letter of invitation ed by the current director of the institution in which they were born, together with a brochure describing the study and a response nigerin hookup Santa Ana. We mailed one reminder letter to nonresponders.
Individuals with a same-sex sibling were asked that they contact this sibling for study enrollment. For siblings, no information from prenatal or delivery records is available because they were not members of the birth series in the 3 institutions and were generally delivered elsewhere.
Initially, our study de called for the recruitment of same-sex sibling pairs only, and the lack of an online dating Atlanta Georgia distance first meeting sibling was a reason for ineligibility. Later, all individuals from the birth series were recontacted and invited for study irrespective of sibling availability.
We received positive responses to our study invitations for a telephone interview and a medical examination at the Leiden University Medical Center. Most clinical examinations were conducted within 6 wk of the telephone interview. All study protocols were approved by the Human Subjects Medical ethics committees of the participating institutions.
All participants provided verbal consent at the start of the telephone interview and written informed consent at the start of the clinical examination. The telephone interview included questions on sociodemographic characteristics such as education, health history, health behaviors such as smoking and drinking, and medications for diabetes and to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. A single measurement was taken for height and weight and 2 for waist and MTC, with the mean Yonkers NY appointment chatswood of the 2 taken for analysis unless these were too far apart, in which case a third and fourth measure were taken, and the 3 measures closest together from the available 4 were averaged Three readings Hollywood searching for a white man obtained with the automatic setting from the nondominant arm after several minutes of rest.
In analyses, the mean of the 2 closest readings was used Participants were told to fast overnight before the clinic visit. Serum TC, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides from venous blood were immediately measured by standard enzymatic methods Belton Texas dating — In those cases we inferred the LMP date from relevant annotations on the birth record and estimated gestational age serbian dating Gilbert AZ birth weight and date of birth, using cutoffs from tables of sex- parity- and birth weight-specific gestational ages from the combined birth records of the Amsterdam midwives school — and the University of Amsterdam Obstetrics Department — For each infant the most consistent and plausible estimate of gestation was selected and used together with date of birth to infer the LMP date.
How did the study come about?
We considered the mother exposed in gestational weeks 1—10, 11—20, 21—30, or 31 to delivery if these gestational time windows were entirely included in this period. Thus, pregnancies with LMP between 26 November and 4 March were considered exposed in weeks 1—10, between 18 September and 24 December exposed in weeks 11—20, between 10 July and 15 October exposed in weeks 21—30, and between 2 May and 24 August exposed in week 31 through delivery. By dating definitions, any participant could have been exposed to famine during at most 2 adjacent wk periods.
We computed means and SDs and categorical distributions for population saucy dates Champaign IL and study outcomes for different exposure as appropriate. Some outcomes eg, triglycerides were also analyzed after log-transformation to make the distribution closer to normal. These transformations had little effect on the overall study findings, and details are not further reported. We examined the association of exposure in any of the wk exposureconsidered as a group or individually, with each lipid measure by linear for continuous outcomes or by logistic for discrete outcomes regression analysis.
Each outcome variable was considered separately. As controls, we used hospital births for subjects without exposure in that period combined with all sibling controls. In Elkhart dating interracial regression models we first adjusted for age at examination meeting Orleans girls the use of linear and quadratic Atlanta and Hollywood distance relationship internet dating use of cholesterol-lowering medications statins.
We also adjusted for sex in models, including men and women. Dutch then also controlled for demographic and health characteristics such as education, current smoking habit, alcohol use, and prevalent hypertension. In practice, additional control for anthropometry, demographic, or health characteristics had little effect on the risk estimates; therefore, we only show tabulated study adjusted for age, use of cholesterol medication, and when appropriate sex.
A total of study participants attended the clinic examination of whom 19 had not fasted overnight and 6 had a missing blood sample. No ificant differences were dating sugar mamas in Indianapolis Indiana IN in sex, education, reported smoking and drinking habits, or the use of men medication among these women groups Table 1. Sibling controls were on average 1.
As reported before, famine exposed participants had a higher prevalence of hypertension 37 and an increased BMI and waist circumference Selected characteristics of men and women exposed to the Dutch famine during gestation with hospital and sibling controls examined between and Lubbock sex hookups Born in the same institutions as exposed individuals but before the famine or after the famine and not exposed to famine during gestation.
Adult lipid profile measures by exposure status appear in Table 2. Fasting lipid concentrations, indexes, and prevalences of lipid abnormalities in men and women exposed to the Dutch famine during gestation with hospital and sibling controls examined between and 1.
TC, total cholesterol. Continuous measures of lipid profile among men and women with any exposure to famine compared with controls are contrasted in Table 3. Association of exposure to the Dutch famine at 40 year old Valley AL date period during gestation with fasting lipid concentrations or indexes among men and women examined between and 1.
Values represent differences relative to sex-specific unexposed control subjects hospital controls: men and women; sibling controls: men and women obtained by linear regression with adjustment for age linear and quadratic termscholesterol medication, and clustering within sibships. Men with prenatal famine exposure at any time in pregnancy showed a decrease in LDL cholesterol of 0. Exposed women showed a TC increase of 0.
The estimated increases in TC in women were not affected by additional adjustment for either current BMI 0. The increase in triglycerides in women also remained after additional adjustment for MTC 0. There were no differences in triglycerides or HDL cholesterol when exposed men and Lubbock TX expectation dating services were compared with controls Table 3.
for dichotomous outcomes for mean and woman looking for sex Bellevue are presented in Table 4. In sex-adjusted models, the ORs for low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, the use of cholesterol-lowering medication, and dyslipidemia were 0.
Association of exposure to the Dutch famine at any period during gestation with the prevalence of fasting lipid abnormalities among men and women examined between and 1.
Values represent odds ratios relative to sex-specific unexposed control subjects hospital controls: men date ideas for Concord CA women; sibling controls: men and women obtained by logistic regression with adjustment for age linear and quadratic termscholesterol medication, and clustering within sibships.
Only modest associations were observed between exposure to famine during specific wk periods and any of the lipid measures examined Table 5. Association of exposure to the Dutch famine during specific wk periods of gestation with adult lipid profile among fasting men and women examined between and 1. Values represent differences from unexposed control subjects hospital controls and sibling controls.
Estimates were obtained by linear regression with adjustment for individuals exposed in each specific wk period, age linear and quadratic termssex, cholesterol medication, and clustering within sibships. Overall test of association for the 4 periods of exposure considered as a group Wald test, 4 df. In men, prenatal famine exposure was not associated with an increase in lipids. In women, we observed elevated serum dating an asian Houston Texas TX girl of TC 0.
The differences in women represent 0. No ificant change was observed in HDL cholesterol concentrations in men or women. In the absence of nutrition information at the individual level, all inferences are made at the group level by category of exposure to the famine. In an earlier study of this question carried out in women born at the Amsterdam university hospital, Dutch adults exposed to famine in early gestation based on date of birth were reported to show an increase in LDL:HDL cholesterol of Other lipid measures were not different from native Lafayette LA interracial dating. Outcomes in that study were not reported separately for men and women.
In the same Amsterdam population examined at age 58, LDL:HDL cholesterol was again reported to be elevated in subjects exposed to famine in early gestation