Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Supplemental Table 2. Supplemental Table 3.
Overweight and obesity status by country and region for females 15 — 49weight, not age adjusted. Supplemental Table 4. Prevalence of double burden in the household in Latin America and Huntington online dating services Caribbean. Supplemental Table 5. Supplemental Table 6.
Trends in total per capita daily sugar-sweetened beverage sales by category, — Supplemental Table 7. Trends in per capita daily junk food 1 sales by category, — Supplemental Table 8. Supplemental Table 9. Total daily per capita mature dating Fargo ND sold in retail and food service from packaged foods, — Supplemental Table Energy from animal source food products available for consumption in selected countries, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
In-home versus away-from-home food and non-alcoholic beverage expenditures, — Whole grains available for consumption for selected countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, — The Latin America and the Caribbean LAC region faces a major diet-related health problem accompanied by enormous economic and social costs. The shifts in diet are profound: major shifts in intake of less-healthful low-nutrient-density foods and sugary beverages, changes in away-from-home customs and snacking and rapid shifts towards very high levels of overweight and obesity among all ages along with, in some countries, high burdens of stunting.
Diet changes have occurred in Midway FL date ideas to, and in two-way causality with, changes in the broad food system — the set of supply chains from farms, through midstream segments of processing, wholesale and logistics, Hawaii online dating openers dating segments of retail and food service restaurants and fast food chains. An essential contribution of this piece is to marry and integrate the nutrition transition literature with the literature on the economics of food system transformation.
This review documents in-depth the recent history of rapid growth and transformation of that broad food system in LAC, with the rapid rise of supermarkets, large processors, fast food chains and food logistics latin. Free sperm donor Fairfield view the transformation of the food system, as well as certain aspects of diet change linked to long-run changes in employment and demographics e.
We then focus in on what are the steps that are being and can be taken to curb the negative effects on diet of these changes. We show that countries in LAC are already among the global leaders in initiating Midland solutions via taxation and marketing controls.
But we also show that this is only a small step forward. We must be cognizant that ultimately, food industry firms must be incentivized to market the components of healthy diets.
Obesity and the food system transformation in latin america
In the end, the food industry in LAC will orient itself towards profitable solutions, ie those demanded by the broad mass first date Durham consumers. In the Latin America and the Caribbean LACextensive child and adult obesity, poor diets and inadequate physical activity are causing high levels of diabetes, hypertension and other noncommunicable diseases NCDs 1 — 5.
At the same time, large proportions of the children in many nations in the region are malnourished and stunted from poor feeding during the date asian women Flint 1, d of their lives 6 — 8. While the causes this review discusses are complex, the basic solutions lie with changes in food systems and diets.
This review focuses on how we got here, what we can do to prevent further escalation and ultimately how we can produce a healthier dating industry Haven. Declines in physical activity have contributed to the obesity problem but not to the malnutrition issues 9.
With the limited data from the region and more complex data from other regions, we will describe briefly the modern technological revolution in market production. Aspects of employment, home production, transportation and leisure have contributed to the problem, but while they importantly impact good health, they do not represent the solutions for this region. Modern food systems impact LAC supply and demand through midstream and downstream processing and wholesale, retail and transportation methods.
These are combined with liberalization and privatization, foreign investment, infrastructure investment and urbanization. Supermarkets, large processors and fast food chains are fed by modernized procurement systems and the coevolution among these segments. As a result, urban and even rural LAC areas white men dating Ontario women experiencing a rapid and ubiquitous transformation.
The diet shifts and declines in physical activity have led to high levels of adult obesity, and now most LAC nations show rapid increases in child free over 50 chat rooms Canton. Consequently, the complications of obesity, including prediabetes, diabetes and other health problems, are emerging among is it hard to date in Wilmington NC and adolescents 1.
In addition, a portion of the population in the region is at greater risk for these problems owing to genetic and race—ethnic complexities. This portion of the population is experiencing a large rightward shift Midland the entire body mass index BMI distribution, a rapid increase in body fat around the liver and the heart often measured Odessa piper dating increased waist circumference at unchanged BMI levels and a greater vulnerability to diabetes and hypertension at lower BMI levels than in non-Hispanic Whites in the region 11 — Finally, many people have faced wasting and stunting during the first 1, d of life and are now confronting the consequent nutritional challenges 15 latin In the Americas and the Caribbean, aside from the wasting and chronic undernutrition found in Haiti and limited subgroups, stunting is the major issue 127 Our review first documents the problem of obesity and the double burden of obesity and dating, even in the same household.
We then discuss diet shifts and provide examples of detailed diets at two or more points in time to address the direct and underlying causes. We then discuss the drivers of and trends in the transformation of the broader food free Fremont CA webcam sex, and its links back to diet change. We then conclude with policy implications and agenda for the debate.
We believe we contribute to the empirical and conceptual San Jose CA dating agency in several ways. First, we contribute to the literature on measuring the nutrition transition, undernutrition and obesity dynamics by country for the region, and we link these dynamics with food system changes. Second, we contribute to the literature on food systems and, in particular on food industry transformation, by updating and expanding analysis of this in LAC, with several integrative dimensions that have not yet been undertaken in prior literature.
For retail, there has been no update of a systematic view of supermarket sales growth since in LAC, and we customs that and show a remarkable similarity with the decade in Asia.
Even in and before, sales data of major retail chains were not even available, and just rough estimates of growth trends were provided in earlier literature. For fast food restaurants in LAC, there has never been in the literature a systematic review of sales growth over countries, either for a snapshot view or, as we do, dating a frenchman Beaumont TX distance a decade.
For food manufactures, in prior literature, there has not been an in-depth discussion of the rise of non-nutritious processed food supply in LAC, nor its links to foreign direct investment FDI and intra-regional as well as extra-regional trade. Beyond the treatment of the individual segments of the food industry, we believe we have made a contribution to the literature not just in LAC but also applicable to other emerging markets of the linkages across the segments of the food industry that mutually reinforce in their engendering ease of access to non-nutritious foods, e.
We believe it is important for the obesity research flirt 2 massage Moreno Valley CA to have a broad and integrated view of these inter-industry linkages and dynamics, and their relations to diet changes, to understand the nature of the challenge facing policymakers in addressing obesity in the region. Finally, we discuss how these dynamics in systemic change limit the future policy options in this region and raise challenges for both the agricultural and health sectors.
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For the prevalencewe used all data from any country with quality data without excessive outliers. For the changes in the double burden, we used only countries with two surveys with mother—child pairs, so we could study prevalence levels and trends in the prevalence. We selected the earliest and latest surveys. Details of the DHS sampling methodology are described elsewhere 22 — These are large national or nationwide gumtree dating Pembroke Pines FL sampled, representative surveys with comparable measured anthropometry 27 Only one survey, the most recent in Brazil, does not include data on preschoolers.
We restricted all analyses to nonpregnant women aged 15—49 years. The data on trends in overweight and obesity for children, adolescent boys and adult men are inadequate. We directly calculated all measures to ensure quality control. All surveys used standardized protocols to measure weight and height.
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We calculated BMI as weight in kilograms divided by height in square metres. Wasting, stunting and overweight deations dating advice for women Beaumont TX preschoolers are from the World Health Organization WHO standards and calculation algorithms 29 We used the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for overweight for women aged 15—18 32 Table S1 presents the countries, the years of the surveys and the sample sizes with anthropometry and age data.
To compare trends in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, we calculated an annualized percentage point change in the prevalence rates for each country. We have used similar methods in other studies We also provide some sense of the double burden of wasting and stunting plus overweight and obesity facing LAC countries. We used only surveys for which we could access the raw data and could systematically clean and calculate identical anthropometric measures of undernutrition and overnutrition.
Note that the data of several national surveys, e. We do not address micronutrient malnutrition here but rather focus on the rapid shift towards i Salem t date and obesity with continued stunting and some wasting.